Ancient Greek architecture
The legacy of ancient Greek architecture is the basis for all further development of world architecture and related monumental art. The reasons for this sustained impact of Greek architecture lie in its objective qualities: simplicity, truthfulness, clarity of the compositions, the harmoniousness and proportionality of total and forms of all parts, in plasticity organic connection of architecture and sculpture, in close unity of the architectural and aesthetic and structural-tectonic elements sooruzheniy. Ancient Greek architecture featured a full line of forms and their design bases, were a whole. Basic design — stone blocks of which the walls were laid. Columns, entablature (lying on the support column overlap) treated with different profiles, has acquired the decorative details, enriched with sculpture. The Greeks brought the processing of architectural structures and fixtures to the highest degree of perfection and refinement. These structures can be called giant works of jewelry art, in which the master was nothing minor.
The architecture of Ancient Greece is closely connected with philosophy, for in its basis and in the basis of ancient Greek art were representations of the power and beauty of people who were in close unity and harmonious balance with the surrounding natural and social environment, as well as in ancient Greece received ballaerospace social life, architecture and art had a pronounced social character.
It is the ultimate perfection and harmony made the monuments of ancient Greek architecture models for subsequent ages.
Ancient Greek architecture developed two stylistic streams, in two orders (Doric and Ionian), which was formed in the VII century BC Under the order in architecture is understood as a certain system combinations and interactions of load-bearing (supporting) and carried (overlapping) elements. In ancient architecture this free-standing support column and lying them on the floor is an entablature.
The major structural elements of two orders of the same. The base is machined around the perimeter of the Playground steps of the stylobate. On it, around the outer circuit of the temple, the columns were established, consisting of three parts; base, shaft and capitals.
The Doric style is the most simple, concise form. The main features of this order is the rigor and simplicity. Ionian style complex and has more details. The main features of the ionic style — a lightness of proportions, a great differentiation of forms, the elegance and relative decorative. In addition to the two major styles of ancient Greek architecture have designed the third — Corinthian. Corinthian style even easier Ionian and should be treated as secondary education arise out of Ionian architecture.
In the most explicit manner the order system performs in the temples. Ancient Greek temples small size as compared with ancient Egyptian and commensurate with the human. Divine services took place outside the walls of the temple, which was considered the home of the gods. The temple is a rectangle surrounded by columns, with a gable roof. The entrance was decorated with a triangular pediment. In the center of the temple was placed a statue of the deity to whom the temple was dedicated. The composition of Greek temples is different. Order the stylistic elements used in each of the types of buildings especially.
The simplest and the earliest type of the temple was distyle . or “temple of the ants”. It consists of a sanctuary “Zella”, rectangular in plan, the front facade is a loggia with a Central aperture. On the sides of the loggia is limited to side walls, which are called antes. Between the antes on the front pediment placed two columns (therefore the temple was called “distyle”, i.e. “two-column”).
The second, also relatively simple type of temple is prostyle . It is similar to the Assembly, the only difference is that the Pro-style has on the front, not two, but four columns.
The third type amphiprostyle is . It’s like a double prostyle — a portico with four columns located on the front and back facades of the building.
The fourth type is the temples painters use . This is the most common type of temples. It is surrounded by columns on all sides around the perimeter. Usually on the front and rear facades by six columns, and the number of sides was determined by the formula 2π + 1, where π is the number of columns on the front façade. Sometimes on the side facades placed not one, but two rows of columns. This type of temple is called dipter . Existed in Gregii another view of the temple — round painters use . where sanctuary — Zella — have a cylindrical shape and around the perimeter of the temple was surrounded by a ring of columns.
The Greeks used in their buildings, including temples, beam ceilings. The distance between the supports was small and did not exceed 10 m. the Order system of the Greeks is a post and beam structure. Orders were used not only in the design of exterior porches, but also in the internal volume of the building, in the interior.
Of exceptional importance for the further development of world architecture, the principles of architectural-planning decisions of Greece, expressed most fully in the ensembles.
So, in the ensemble of the Athenian Acropolis asymmetry combined with the harmonic balance of the masses, thought out the interaction between individual buildings themselves and considered the sequence in the perception of buildings outside and inside the complex, the architects designed a close relationship of this architectural structure with the surrounding landscape. The Acropolis (“upper city”) is a natural rock elongated shape with a flat top. Its size is about 300 m in length and 130 m in width. The basis of the ensemble is based on two consistently pursued the principle followed ancient Greek architecture: the harmonious balance of masses and perception of architecture in the process of gradual, dynamic its sweep.
The Greek architects devoted exclusive attention to the natural environment and has always attempted deliberately and with the highest artistic result to enter their buildings into the surrounding landscape. The “pearl” of the Acropolis is the Parthenon temple, the Central edifice of the ensemble. This is a great periptera (8×17 columns with a height of 10.5 m). Creating an impression of harmony and majestic beauty promotes the active use of sculptures both inside and outside of the temple. That is why the Parthenon is one of the brightest examples of the world architecture of genuine and deep synthesis of the arts.
In addition to Greek temples, the architects erected many other public architectural structures: stadiums, palaestras (a hall for gymnastic exercises), dwelling houses, theatres (conservatoires). Theatres in Greece was located on the slopes of the hills. Across the slope was made of the stage for spectators at the bottom in front of them erected a stage area for performances of the choir “orchestra”, and the actors were on stage, “Skene”. The Grand theatre had a capacity of 25 thousand spectators.
Houses were often in the center of the rectangular courtyard, where were the doors and Windows of the premises. If you have two floors at the top was located gineka — the female part of the house. The main hall — the Andron — was intended for feasts and meals.
In the Hellenistic times, the main topic of the architecture is the planning. Construction of new cities and numerous malls, construction is carried out on a large scale and at a rapid pace. There is a need to develop techniques and theoretical foundations for the erection of countless buildings of various purposes. They are summarized in the architectural treatise, the authors on the basis of the basic principles of ancient Greek art sought to develop ways of sustainable construction and in architecture and planning, and in technical relations. At this time, developed a schematic diagram of the layout of the town, dismember rectilinear street grid of equal blocks. In the center of town was located the public buildings — the national Assembly, city Council, the Basilica (court-administration building), gymnasium, schools, temples. The Central town square takes on the character of the market (Agora). And the square and the streets were akileos porticoes, creating a shadow. The contour of the city was surrounded by defensive walls.
The composition of social structures, diverse functions are also very different. But there is a common spatial technique, which had been preferred, to use the theme with peristyle courtyard, which in various combinations retains the value of the compositional center of the building.