Famous buildings of the world
Famous architectural works of our world
Architecture is a curious phenomenon of human civilization.
The Roman engineer and architect mark Vitruvius in the first century BC are right that it is based on considerations of durability, utility and beauty. This is true, however, such a pragmatic approach is clearly not able to explain the striking differences in the styles of architectural structures that have appeared in different countries and different peoples. Its shape and the sculptures of the ancient temples of India did not correlate with the great pyramids of Giza and Mesoamerica. Stately building, which built by the ancient Khmers, it is not like openwork design of Chinese pagodas. To the Gothic cathedrals of Europe, the construction of which lasted sometimes for centuries, can hardly apply the notion of feasibility. The architectural style phenomenon occurs at the junction of traditions and technical capabilities, certain building material, as well as religious and secular ideas generated by the society. We are surprised by the ability of the masons of the ancient civilization of the Incas, but they were hardly beyond the capabilities of the ancient Egyptians. The differences in architecture of these peoples largely generated by the difference in their cultures and beliefs. In order to fully perceive any architectural structure is not enough to possess a special construction of the terminology used to describe it. Required znaniyam the field of history and religion. Then it will be clear communication of the temples of Ancient Rome with buildings of the Renaissance, and the flowing lines of Chinese temples will talk about the aesthetics of perception of the nature of the inhabitants of the celestial Empire. The invasion of the Moors to the South-West of Europe is connected in the architecture with the advent of synthetic Mudejar style, and the phenomenon of the origin and evolution of the Empire style are partly due to political upheavals engendered by the French revolution.
No less interesting is the evolution of the architecture of the XX century Passed through a period of eclecticism art Nouveau, she rushed to the new fields generated by the modern technological advancements. Against the background of globalization and erasing barriers between different cultures there is a new architecture, which draws from the aesthetics of natural forms, rather than repelled from the accumulated construction experience of previous generations. Anticipated these trends were Antonio Gaudi and Lucio Costa.
Book you opened designed for a wide range of readers. It is a kind of guide to the wonderful world of architecture. The publication tells the story of the main architectural styles of world architecture, talks about their evolution and about the history of the most interesting buildings of Ancient Egypt and Ancient Mesopotamia, Pre-Columbian America, ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Byzantium, Ancient India, Ancient China and Japan. You will get acquainted with the best examples of buildings from the Renaissance, Gothic architecture, Baroque and Rococo, the architecture of the Empire style, eclecticism, modernism, and the amazing achievements of modern architecture.
In 1989 in the heart of the so-called Napoleon at the Louvre was completed the construction of the glass pyramid designed by American architect of Chinese origin yo Ming Pei. The clarity and rigor of its edges and planes are interesting and in stark contrast to the lush architectural forms of the former residence of French kings. Pyramidal structures are associated primarily with the architecture of Ancient Egypt. Its an amazing phenomenon is associated with the religious beliefs of the Egyptians. Archaeologists can tell a lot about the features of dwellings of the ancient inhabitants of the Nile valley. However, do not impress these humble dwellings, built of bricks, sometimes reinforced with chopped stalks of papyrus and Lotus.
A contribution to the history of world architecture Ancient Egypt made with its memorial stone temples. The strength of the construction material from which they were erected, consistent with the strength of the faith of the Egyptians in the afterlife after death. The cult of the dead gave rise to the stone tombs – mastaba.
At the beginning of the old Kingdom (XXX century BC) the most important part were the underground burial chamber. Above ground towered only a small rectangle building with walls and flat roof. Modest stone decoration in it was repeated to form wooden structures. It is obvious that to develop into such a design would hardly. So soon the Royal tombs began to grow up, acquiring the shape of the step pyramid. Then very quickly, by historical standards, has made the leap to ideal geometric shape with an absolutely smooth plane. The majestic pyramids of Giza were not just a giant geometric shapes, but also a visible symbol of magical power of the Pharaoh, which continued to protect the country and after his death. Records of the volumes of the pyramids of Cheops, Chephren and menkaure made a point on the evolution of structures of this type. Their construction lay too heavy a burden on the economy. It is no accident in the long history of Egypt the construction of pyramids was renewed during the next economic recovery of the state. Further development of the architecture of Ancient Egypt was connected with the temples that were initially built the pyramids. They gave rise to giant pylons, the hypostyle columned halls and avenues, decorated with figures of sphinxes. For the first time in the history of architecture the ancient Egyptians began to attach the top of the columns in the form of a Bud or flower. It was a kind of “seed” magnificent capitals of the Corinthian columns of Ancient Greece. The original invention of the Egyptians can be considered, and stone arrow-shaped obelisks, which decorated the entrance to the temple. Many of them were later exported to Europe and the New world. The Washington monument in the U.S. capital in its form practically repeats the obelisks of Egyptian Pharaoh Ramses II.