Gothic stained glass
Stained glass is a major form of artistic glass in the Gothic era; this is partly explained by the fact that, unlike Romanesque architecture, Gothic Church buildings increases the area of Windows. Compared with Romanesque stained glass Windows in Gothic more condensed notes and deep color. So, darken the blue color, and unpainted glass appear occasionally and are used to obtain brilliant points. Thus for the sake of saving often used grisaille, and not only in borders, where they are used to put by a brush of vegetable ornament, but also for backgrounds. In the twelfth century for the purpose of stained glass was the coverage, in the thirteenth century its function changed: it is designed to teach decorating. At high altitude we often see images of people in cresciute placed under the arcades or under the arch. Purely ornamental elements — veteniary ornament, finials, palmettos are becoming increasingly rare. In the XIV century on the borders of the stained glass Windows there are small human figures.
Great Gothic cathedrals of France were created in one of the most colourful and dynamic eras of Western civilization. Gained strength the process of becoming secular world, in a way comparable to modern. However, the spiritual side was strong and full of life.
Most of the great Gothic cathedrals were created in the first half of the thirteenth century. Sohranivshiesya our days, they became established in the Western public consciousness as the optimal form of the temple of God. The Gothic architecture of the buildings is radically different from massive mundane buildings of the Romanesque period. By the end of XII century cathedrals got kind of designs, based not on the thick walls, and on the alternation of vertical spires, pointed arches and ribbed vaults. For the first time in Western Church architecture of light became the main element of the interior. Logical understanding of design and the relationship between walls and Windows and made a revolution in the architecture of Northern Europe and dominated for the next three centuries.
During the reign of Louis IX (1220-1270) the refined elegance and splendor of decoration was combined in a fairly wide part of the exterior sculptures of the cathedrals. Encouraged by the monarch from the creative Union was born a unique aesthetic of refined elegance. Typical French approach to art as the urgent need is highlighted for the first time in the early thirteenth century. In the framework of the French “Palace style” stained glass Windows acquired the exquisite beauty of finish and delicate colour harmony. Radical changes in the architectural context of the Windows were caused by the desire of the architects to reach the limit of the ratio of glazed surface areas. Reducing the thickness of the outer buttresses of the choir founded around 1230 Lenskogo Cathedral has allowed to increase the width and height of the Windows. Thin stone “openwork” weave, framing the top row of Windows, are characterized by intricate ornamentation. A breathtaking ensemble of the naves in cathedrals of this period highlighted reflects a linear system of harmonic proportions and the vertical accentuation. Getting through the prisoners in the stone openwork glass, the light acquires the properties of ubiquitous all-pervading substance.
Besides the already mentioned Cathedral in Bourges XIII century has left us with the excellent samples in the cathedrals of Angers, Chalons-on-Marne, Clermont-Ferrand, as well as in Germany and in Strasbourg, where the masters gave preference to yellow and green tones, and in Stuttgart. All these stained glass Windows are remarkable for harmony of the overall ensemble.
In the fourteenth century, artists have increasingly turned to the stained glass of grisaille, the size of individual panes increased, lead ligature framing of goals is often made invisible, the picture becomes sleeker and thinner, resembling a miniature book. In addition, clear glass before replacing the prevailing blue color and lasts a while, until the coldness is not compelled artists to return to the warm colours of at least the image of clothes. From the fourteenth century to have survived the magnificent stained glass ensembles, in particular in the Cathedral of Evreux and Rouen in the Church of St. Owen. It has been widely reported the development of architectural decoration, not only due to the predominant role of architecture, but also the desire to fill a tall and narrow Lancet openings.