Mysterious construction in Ireland
Newgrange new Grange, Shi-an-Age — cult is the oldest stone structure in the world. The property consists of megaliths and the complex of brú na bóinne is located in Ireland.
Presumably, the age takes the countdown from 3600 BC, which is older than Stonehenge and the Egyptian pyramids.
This area was used as farmland. In 1688 these lands went into the possession of Charles Campbell. His servants found Newgrange when I was looking for rocks for construction. First, the construction seemed to them a simple cave, but then was discovered a long narrow passage leading to a large room. Workers immediately reported the find to the owner who told antiquary, naturalist and philologist Edward Lugo. In the end Lug Newgrange announced his discovery and called it a tomb, to put it simply a prehistoric grave. Later, many questioned this hypothesis, for example Charles Vallance, considering that it is rather used for rituals and astronomical purposes. In 1983 Martin Brennan published the book “the Stones of Time”, which leads a lot of details that refute the theory of the burial tomb.
Over time, the complex began to decrease due to subsidence of the embankment, and soon disappeared entirely. In 1962 under the direction of Professor Michael J. O’kelly. Newgrange was excavated and restored, and around it was built a wall made of quartzite and graniteds strengthen the embankment. This restoration caused discontent among the archaeological community, critics argue that such technology did not exist when I built this building. Another cause of discontent was the fact that the stones were brought from other regions of the country.
Today, Newgrange is restored and open to visitors.
The height of the mound — 13.5 meters, a diameter of 85 meters. The 19-meter long corridor leads to the burial chamber, which is based on upright stone monoliths weighing from 20 to 40 tons. The device of Newgrange than it resembles Stonehenge, except that here, unlike Stonehenge stone ring top covered with mound of earth and rubble.
Inside the chamber are preserved a large floral bowl, and the walls are carved niches decorated with stone carvings. Above the room is located step arch.
The monoliths of which it consists, are arranged so that the heaviest are at the bottom of the stones and weight them in the top decreases. The dome forms a tapering upwards hexagonal shaft height of 6 meters.
During the excavation, that on the outer surface of the slab were grooves for water flow and Cup-shaped marks, still hidden in bulk. The mound itself consisted of layers of stones and peat, she was surrounded by the supporting wall-carbon of ornamented plates.
On both sides of the entrance green stones kerba surmounted by a wall of white quartz.
The entrance to the tomb marked the circle of stones with heights from 1.5 to 2.5 m. Another 97 circle of standing stones surrounded the perimeter of the tomb. All these stones but also the walls of the corridor and the burial chamber is covered with ornament, consisting of zigzag lines, triangles, concentric circles, but the most common image of triple helix.
This symbol was widespread in Neolithic art and, as the researchers suggest, was connected with the cycle of death and rebirth (in particular, similar to the symbols carved on carved stone balls — the characteristic artifacts of the same era). Most of the images of the spiral is located at the entrance to the tomb, as if defining the boundary between the netherworld and the world of the living.
Also among the motifs were signs of Cup and ring.
In 1993 UNESCO formally granted to archaeological ensemble of the river Boyne, the international status of the historical monument.
In the List of world heritage sites Newgrange described as the largest and most important megalithic structures in Europe.
Every year thousands of tourists come here to look at another mysterious structure of their ancestors.
Newgrange entered Celtic mythology as the barrow of fairies. It was the home of the God Dagda, his wife Boann and their son Angus, the God of love. The locals believed that every year on the night of November 1, the Celts considered the night of “no time”, when one year ends and gives its place to another, the fairies come out.
The Museum exposition.
The tunnel is directed to the South-East, towards the sunrise at the winter solstice. Above the entrance is a hole — a window 20 cm in width, through which sunlight can penetrate to the inner room. Within a few days (in mid December), the rays of the rising Sun penetrate through the tunnel into the chamber, and brightly illuminate it for about 20 minutes.
Only a few comers are allowed to watch the beautiful sight of the sunlight into the inner chamber at dawn. For example, in 2005, it was selected only 50 people out of 27000 applicants. To determine the lucky held a special lottery was allowed only 10 visitors a day.